How can I concentrate citrus juice at home?


I used to make no-bake pies as a kid that consisted of whipped topping, condensed sweetened milk, and frozen lemon- or lime-aid concentrate (thawed) mixed together and poured into a graham cracker pie crust then chilled to set.

The recipe I learned called for a small can of frozen concentrate, a can of sweetened condensed milk, a 12-16 ounce container of whipped topping and a 9 inch pie crust. But lately all I can find are large cans that result in a runny pie filling that doesnt set well.

I would like to try with homemade lime or lemon concentrate but how would I go about concentrating the juice?

What is bearnaise sauce thickened by?


As from the title, what is Bearnaise sauce thickened by? There are a few different ingredients in bearnaise sauce that helps in thickening such as egg yolks, but how is it thickened and what other ingredients are there that is considered as a thickening agent?

How can I incorporate brown lettuce into something appetizing?


I have four bags of lettuce that have gone brown. A nice fresh salad is obviously out of the question. Is there anything I can do with it?

How to choose a pan for making caramel?


Is there any noticeable difference in taste and texture when making caramel on a non-stick pan versus a normal pan? I have seen a few cooks making caramel on a stainless steel saucepan and others on black frying pans most probably non-stick. But, is there a difference?

Surely, the most annoying thing is cleaning up the mess of caramel afterwards, any fast tips?

Water vs. milk/cream (or nothing) in traditional (French) omelets


Previous questions here have addressed the reasons why water or milk is added to scrambled egg mixtures in cooking. However, the two questions I’ve linked seem to parallel a distinction I’ve noticed sometimes in recipes or in instructions given by chefs and often repeated on cooking forums: one can add milk or cream to scrambled eggs, while only water is appropriate for omelets, particularly traditional “French” omelet styles.

Some chefs claim that using milk in traditional omelets will make them “tough” (or even “watery”), so they recommend only a small amount of water. (Some traditionalists, of course, also discourage any additions to the eggs before cooking for a French omelet, even leaving any seasonings or herbs until the very end.) On the other hand, I have seen other well-known chefs encourage the addition of milk or even cream to omelets to increase richness.

In my own cooking, I have found that adding any type of liquid can increase the lightness and “fluffiness” of the final omelet, and for that reason it’s often worth the extra few seconds it adds in cooking time (which can risk toughness). But I’ve never noticed a significant difference in toughness when adding milk compared to water, nor have I noticed a significant increase in richness (which I find is often determined more by the amount of butter I put in the pan). In fact, the prohibition against cream seems a bit odd to me, given that many chefs also advocate a rather large amount of butter for omelets which often ends up being stirred into the eggs while in the pan.

So — my question: is there actually any science behind the claim that one should only add water to a French omelet, since milk (and possibly cream as well) could toughen it? Or is this just another culinary myth? Also, is there any other scientific reason to withhold water or milk from a traditional omelet, other than very slightly increasing the richness of the egg flavor? (Keep in mind that the amount of liquid I’m talking about here is very small, usually no more than a tablespoon for 2-3 eggs.)

(Just to be clear, a French omelet is generally cooked quite fast in a hot pan, often stirred and/or shaken rapidly during cooking to raise the egg temperatures as fast as possible, and then folded and unloaded from the pan while the outside is pale to golden yellow — never brown — and left creamy (“underdone”) inside. I’ve occasionally seen chefs advocate a slower approach, but the final product is always the same: barely colored on the outside, creamy to slightly runny on the inside, and the overall goal is to maintain maximum tenderness, often with little or no filling at all. This is opposed to a more “American” or “country” style omelet which can be tougher and perhaps somewhat browned to create a more durable shell used to hold a large amount of heavy fillings.)

How to reduce the masala taste from chicken roast


We cooked chicken roast and we cooked it in three batches. this is for a party.
Good thing- OF the three batches two of them turned out to be pretty good.

Issue- The third one turned out to stand a bit front in masala. Is there a way to reduce the masala taste in this? We mixed all the three batches together (I know we shouldn’t have however it was soo late in the night and bad decisions).

The pieces used are legs and thighs.

We are going to make another 3 more batches.

Does anyone have a suggestions?

Wanted to clarify that the spice level is ok. its the whole masala taste which is standing front.

Are limes and lime juice more acidic than lemons and lemon juice?


I attended a business meeting in the Midwest and one of our clients took our management team and a few other business partners to dinner at an awesome Mexican restaurant. When the appetizers were served I commented that it was a wonderful presentation and that everything looked very fresh, including the avocado slices.

Speaking to the woman seated across from me I said that even though I use a good amount of lemon juice, whenever I prepare avocados they still turned dark pretty quickly. This happens whether they are sliced, used in guacamole, etc. She responded that the secret is to use lime juice. She proceeded to tell me that she was born and raised in Central America and that it is customary there to use fresh limes or juice rather than lemon.

I have tried it and lime seems to work much better than lemon, so it would stand to reason that they are more acidic. However, I never thought there was that much difference. So, on to the questions.

Are limes more acidic than lemons? Are there any other differences in their properties that could make a difference?

What is the temperature range for food not to burn your mouth?


I’m trying to get a temperature range for knowing when food is too hot to eat. Most of what I am finding is temperature ranges for food to kill bacteria instead.

For example, if I’m serving a hot drink or a soup/stew which was recently simmering or boiling, what temperature should I let it cool to before serving?

Are there similar scales like the Scoville scale?


Are there any scales that have been applied to any of the five basic tastes or other types of food sensations that have been quantified based on their affect on people, similar to the Scoville scale?

Sure you could say that people’s experience of something like sweetness is subjective, but you could say the same thing about spiciness.

What's the meaning of “input size” for 3-SAT?


In the computational complexity theory, we say that an algorithm have complexity O(f(n)) if the number of computations that solve a problem with input size n is bounded by cf(n), for all integer n, where c is a positive constant non-depending on n, and f(n) is an increasing function that goes to infinity as n does.

The 3-SAT problem is stated as: given a CNF expression, whose clauses has exactly 3 literals, is there some assignment of TRUE and FALSE values to the variables that will make the entire expression true?

A CNF expression consists of, say, k clauses involving m variables x1, …, xm.
In order to decide if 3-SAT has polynomial complexity P(n), or not, I need to understand something so simple as “what is n” in the problem.

My question is:

Which is considered, in this particular 3-SAT problem, the input
size n?

Is it the number k of clauses? Or is it the number m of variables?
Or n is some function of k and m? ( n=f(k,m) ).

What exactly the theoretical computer scientits consider as the input size for this problem?

I did the estimate that n <= constant * m^3. Is this correct for you?

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